Program Manager: Hannah Freeze, email@example.com, 435-764-6258
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines AFOs as agricultural enterprises where animals are kept and raised in confined situations. AFOs congregate animals, feed, manure and urine, dead animals, and production operations on a small land area. Feed is brought to the animals rather than the animals grazing or otherwise seeking feed in pastures, fields, or on rangeland. There are approximately 450,000 AFOs in the United States.
A CAFO is another EPA term for a large concentrated AFO. A CAFO is an AFO with more than 1000 animal units (an animal unit is defined as an animal equivalent of 1000 pounds live weight and equates to 1000 head of beef cattle, 700 dairy cows, 2500 swine weighing more than 55 lbs, 125 thousand broiler chickens, or 82 thousand laying hens or pullets) confined on site for more than 45 days during the year. Any size AFO that discharges manure or wastewater into a natural or man-made ditch, stream or other waterway is defined as a CAFO, regardless of size. CAFOs are regulated by EPA under the Clean Water Act in both the 2003 and 2008 versions of the “CAFO” rule.
NATIONAL AND STATE AFO STRATEGIES
- A Utah Strategy to Address Water Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations
- AgWasteManagement.usu.edu – A Utah State University Extension website helping livestock producers with waste management issues and providing explanations for AFO/CAFO regulations.
- NRCS Guidance for AFO/CAFO Operations
- EPA Regulations for AFO/CAFO Operations
AGRICULTURAL VOLUNTARY INCENTIVE PROGRAM
The goal of the AgVIP is to implement practices that can increase crop yields, improve soil health, and add value to operations while improving water quality. To learn more about the Agriculture Voluntary Incentive Program, click here.